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Posts Tagged ‘Venue’

Confirming Awards Part II | Post-Award Federal Arbitration Act Enforcement Litigation | Section 9 of the Federal Arbitration Act | Businessperson’s Federal Arbitration Act FAQ Guide

June 19th, 2020 Arbitration and Mediation FAQs, Arbitration as a Matter of Consent, Arbitration Law, Arbitration Practice and Procedure, Awards, Businessperson's FAQ Guide to the Federal Arbitration Act, Confirmation of Awards, Consent to Confirmation, FAA Chapter 1, Federal Arbitration Act Enforcement Litigation Procedure, Federal Arbitration Act Section 9, Nuts & Bolts, Nuts & Bolts: Arbitration, Personal Jurisdiction, Petition or Application to Confirm Award, Section 9, Small Business B-2-B Arbitration, Statute of Limitations 4 Comments »
Confirming Awards Procedure

In the last segment of this Businessperson’s Federal Arbitration Act FAQ Guide, we discussed the substantive requirements for confirming a Chapter One Domestic Award. Now we turn to the procedural requirements.

What are the Procedural Requirements for Confirming a Chapter One Domestic Award?  

The key procedural requirements for confirming arbitration awards are:

  1. The party seeking confirmation may apply for it “within one year after the award is made.  .  .”;
  2. Notice of application must be properly served;
  3. Venue must be proper; and
  4. The “court must grant” confirmation “unless the award is vacated, modified or corrected” under Section 10 or 11 of the FAA.

9 U.S.C. § 9.

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Appointing Arbitrators | Businessperson’s Federal Arbitration Act FAQ Guide | Nuts and Bolts of Pre-Award Federal Arbitration Act Practice

April 29th, 2020 Application to Appoint Arbitrator, Arbitration as a Matter of Consent, Arbitration Law, Arbitration Practice and Procedure, Arbitrator Selection and Qualification Provisions, Businessperson's FAQ Guide to the Federal Arbitration Act, FAA Chapter 1, Federal Arbitration Act Section 5, First Principle - Consent not Coercion, Nuts & Bolts, Nuts & Bolts: Arbitration, Practice and Procedure, Section 5, Small Business B-2-B Arbitration 1 Comment »
Appointing Arbitrators

Chapter One of the Federal Arbitration Act enforces arbitration agreements during the pre-award stage by authorizing orders: (a) staying litigation of arbitrable claims; (b) compelling arbitration; (c) appointing one or more arbitrators; and (d) enforcing arbitral hearing subpoenas. We’ve discussed the basics of the first two of these remedies in prior installments of this post. This and one or more other future installments will address he third: an order appointing arbitrators.

This instalment addresses the following FAQs concerning the judicial appointment of arbitrators under 9 U.S.C. § 5:

  1. Under what Circumstances can a Court Appoint Arbitrators under Section 5 of the Federal Arbitration Act?
  2. What Papers Comprise an Application to Appoint an Arbitrator under Section 5?

The next installment will address the FAQs:

  1. “How does Section 5 Work in Practice?”
  2. “Does Section 5 of the Federal Arbitration Act authorize a Court to Appoint a Replacement Arbitrator if an Arbitrator Dies Prior to the Making of an Award?”    

Under what Circumstances can a Court Appoint Arbitrators under Section 5 of the Federal Arbitration Act?

Section 5 of the Federal Arbitration Act provides that “[i]f in the agreement provision be made for a method of naming or appointing an arbitrator or arbitrators or an umpire, such method shall be followed. . . .” 9 U.S.C. § 5. This provision of Section 5 reflects “the central or primary purpose of the [Federal Arbitration Act (“FAA”)][,]” which is “to ensure that  private agreements to arbitrate are enforced according to their terms.” Stolt-Nielsen, S.A. v. AnimalFeeds Int’l Corp., 559 U.S. 662, 678-80 (2010) (citation and quotations omitted). It also ensures enforcement of what Circuit Court Judge Richard A. Posner once dubbed the “cornerstone of the arbitral process”: “Selection of the decision maker by or with the consent of the parties. . . . Lefkovitz v. Wagner, 395 F.3d 773, 780 (2005) (Posner, J.); see, e.g., Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, Art. V(1)(d), June 10, 1958, 21 U.S.T. 2519, T.I.A.S. No. 6997 (a/k/a the “New York Convention”) (implemented by 9 U.S.C. §§ 201, et. seq.) (award subject to challenge where “[t]he composition of the arbitral authority or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the agreement of the parties”); Stolt-Nielsen, 559 U.S. at 668, 670 (one of the FAA’s “rules of fundamental importance” is parties “may choose who will resolve specific disputes”) (emphasis added; citations omitted); Encyclopaedia Universalis S.A. v. Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Inc., 403 F.3d 85, 91-92 (2d Cir. 2005) (vacating award by panel not convened in accordance with parties’ agreement); Cargill Rice, Inc. v. Empresa Nicaraguense Dealimentos Basicos, 25 F.3d 223, 226 (4th Cir. 1994) (same); Avis Rent A Car Sys., Inc. v. Garage Employees Union, 791 F.2d 22, 25 (2d Cir. 1986) (same).

In addition to directing that arbitrator selection and qualification provisions be enforced according to their terms, Section 5 authorizes court intervention for appointing arbitrators in three situations:  

  1. “if no method be provided therein. . . [;]”
  2. “if a method be provided and any party thereto shall fail to avail himself of such method[;] or”
  3. “if for any other reason there shall be a lapse in the naming of an arbitrator or arbitrators or umpire, or in filling a vacancy. . . .”  

9 U.S.C. § 5.

In any of those situations Section 5 authorizes “either party” to make an “application” to the court for an order “designat[ing]” and “appoint[ing] “an arbitrator or arbitrators or umpire,” “who shall act under the said agreement with the same force and effect as if he or they had been specifically named therein. . . .” 9 U.S.C. § 5. Section 5 also states that “unless otherwise provided in the agreement arbitration shall be by a single arbitrator.”  9 U.S.C. § 5.

Appointing Arbitrators: What Papers Comprise an Application to Appoint an Arbitrator under Section 5?

Like applications under Section 4 of the Federal Arbitration Act, and all other applications for relief under the Federal Arbitration Act, an application to appoint arbitrators under Section 5, when brought as an independent legal proceeding in federal district court, is a summary or expedited proceeding, not a regular lawsuit. The application, like all other Federal Arbitration Act applications, is governed by Section 6 of the Act, which provides that “[a]ny application to the court hereunder shall be made and heard in the manner provided by law for the making and hearing of motions, except as otherwise .  .  .  expressly provided [in the Federal Arbitration Act].” 9 U.S.C. § 6.

In cases where the application to appoint an arbitrator commences an independent proceeding in a federal district court, the papers in support of the application will ordinarily consist of: (a) a notice of application; (b) a summons; (c) the application itself; (d) a memorandum of law in support; and (e) any supporting affidavits or declarations, principally (but not necessarily exclusively) for putting before the court pertinent documents. Sometimes the application is referred to as a “petition,” rather than an “application,” but the variation in nomenclature does not change the substance or legal effect of the paper.

Documents that should be submitted to the Court ordinarily include copies of: (a) the contract containing the arbitration agreement; (b) the arbitration demand and any related correspondence, including with the arbitrator provider; (c) any documents evidencing efforts to appoint an arbitrator or arbitration panel; (d) any documents evidencing the presence of one or more of the three grounds under which Section 5 authorizes a court to appoint an arbitrator; and (e) a list of arbitrators the court should consider appointing, along with their qualifications.

The application should show that: (a) the court has subject matter jurisdiction, personal jurisdiction, and venue; (b) the parties entered into a written arbitration agreement falling under the Federal Arbitration Act, or that the applicant is entitled to claim against the respondent under a written arbitration agreement; (c) at least one of the three grounds for Section 5 relief is present; (d) appointing an arbitrator from the applicant’s list is warranted in the circumstances, including under the parties’ agreement.

Please note. . .

This guide, including the installments that will follow in later posts, and prior installments, does not purport to be a comprehensive recitation of the rules and principles of arbitration law pertinent or potentially pertinent to the issues discussed. It is designed simply to give clients, prospective clients, and other readers general information that will help educate them about the legal challenges they may face and how engaging a skilled, trustworthy, and experienced arbitration attorney can help them confront those challenges more effectively.

This guide is not intended to be legal advice and it should not be relied upon as such. Nor is it a “do-it-yourself” guide for persons who represent themselves pro se, whether they are forced to do so by financial circumstances or whether they voluntarily elect to do so.

If you want or require arbitration-related legal advice, or representation by an attorney in an arbitration or in litigation about arbitration, then you should request legal advice from an experienced and skilled attorney or law firm with a solid background in arbitration law.

About the Author

Philip J. Loree Jr. is a partner and founding member of Loree & Loree. He has nearly 30 years of experience handling matters arising under the Federal Arbitration Act and in representing a wide variety of clients in arbitration, litigation, and arbitration-related litigation. He is a former partner of the litigation departments of the New York City firms of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP and Rosenman & Colin LLP (now known as Katten Munchin Rosenman LLP).

Loree & Loree represents private and government-owned-or-controlled business organizations, and persons acting in their individual or representative capacities, and often serves as co-counsel, local counsel or legal adviser to other domestic and international law firms requiring assistance or support.

Loree & Loree was recently selected by Expertise.com out of a group of 1,763 persons or firms reviewed as one of Expertise.com’s top 18 “Arbitrators & Mediators” in New York City for 2019, and now for 2020. (See here and here.)

If you have any questions about arbitration, arbitration-law, arbitration-related litigation, this article, or any other legal-related matter, you can contact Phil Loree Jr. at (516) 941-6094 or at PJL1@LoreeLawFirm.com.

ATTORNEY ADVERTISING NOTICE: Prior results do not guarantee a similar outcome.

Photo Acknowledgment

The photo featured in this post was licensed from Yay Images and is subject to copyright protection under applicable law. Loree & Loree added text to this photo.

Venue and Hearing Procedure | Application to Compel Arbitration | Businessperson’s Federal Arbitration Act FAQ Guide | Nuts and Bolts of Pre-Award Federal Arbitration Act Practice under Sections 2, 3, and 4 (Part IV)

April 27th, 2020 Application to Compel Arbitration, Arbitration and Mediation FAQs, Arbitration Practice and Procedure, Businessperson's FAQ Guide to the Federal Arbitration Act, FAA Chapter 1, Federal Arbitration Act Enforcement Litigation Procedure, Federal Arbitration Act Section 4, Federal Courts, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Motion to Compel Arbitration, Nuts & Bolts: Arbitration, Personal Jurisdiction, Petition to Compel Arbitration, Practice and Procedure, Small Business B-2-B Arbitration 2 Comments »
hearing procedure venue

This segment of the Businessperson’s Federal Arbitration ACT FAQ Guide focuses on the venue and hearing procedure aspects of compelling arbitration under Section 4 of the Federal Arbitration Act.  

The last instalment discussed the following FAQ related to Section 4 applications to compel arbitration: “What Papers Comprise an Application to Compel Arbitration and how are they Served?”

This segment addresses two FAQs:

  1. How does a Federal Court “Hear” an Application to Compel Arbitration?  
  2. In what Federal Court may an Application to Compel Arbitration be Filed?

Introduction: Section 4 and its Component Parts

As explained in our prior posts, Section 4 consists of 386 words jammed into a single paragraph, but it is easier to digest and follow if we divide it into subparagraphs or subsections, which we do below, using bold and bracketed text: 

[(a) Who may Petition what Court When and for What.] A party aggrieved by the alleged failure, neglect, or refusal of another to arbitrate under a written agreement for arbitration may petition any United States district court which, save for such agreement, would have jurisdiction under title 28, in a civil action or in admiralty of the subject matter of a suit arising out of the controversy between the parties, for an order directing that such arbitration proceed in the manner provided for in such agreement.

[(b) Notice and Service of Petition.] Five days’ notice in writing of such application shall be served upon the party in default. Service thereof shall be made in the manner provided by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

[(c) Hearing Procedure and Venue.] The court shall hear the parties, and upon being satisfied that the making of the agreement for arbitration or the failure to comply therewith is not in issue, the court shall make an order directing the parties to proceed to arbitration in accordance with the terms of the agreement. The hearing and proceedings, under such agreement, shall be within the district in which the petition for an order directing such arbitration is filed. If the making of the arbitration agreement or the failure, neglect, or refusal to perform the same be in issue, the court shall proceed summarily to the trial thereof.

[(d) Jury Trial, where Applicable] If no jury trial be demanded by the party alleged to be in default, or if the matter in dispute is within admiralty jurisdiction, the court shall hear and determine such issue. Where such an issue is raised, the party alleged to be in default may, except in cases of admiralty, on or before the return day of the notice of application, demand a jury trial of such issue, and upon such demand the court shall make an order referring the issue or issues to a jury in the manner provided by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, or may specially call a jury for that purpose.

[(e) Disposition upon Trial.] If the jury find that no agreement in writing for arbitration was made or that there is no default in proceeding thereunder, the proceeding shall be dismissed. If the jury find that an agreement for arbitration was made in writing and that there is a default in proceeding thereunder, the court shall make an order summarily directing the parties to proceed with the arbitration in accordance with the terms thereof.

9 U.S.C. § 4 (bold and bracketed text added).

How does a Federal Court “Hear” an Application to Compel Arbitration?

What we refer to as “Section 4(c)” provides that “[t]he court shall hear the parties, and upon being satisfied that the making of the agreement for arbitration or the failure to comply therewith is not in issue, the court shall make an order directing the parties to proceed to arbitration in accordance with the terms of the agreement.” But, Section 4 continues, “[i]f the making of the arbitration agreement or the failure, neglect, or refusal to perform the same be in issue, the court shall proceed summarily to the trial thereof.” 9 U.S.C. § 4.

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